Gaelic football was first codified in 1887, although it has purported links to older varieties of football played in Ireland. A rough-and tumble form of Gaelic football was common throughout the middle ages, similar versions of which abounded throughout Europe and eventually became the forebears of both soccer and rugby. Though references to Irish Football are practically non-existent before the 1600s the earliest records of a recognized precursor to modern Gaelic football date from a game in County Meath, Ireland in 1670, in which catching and kicking the ball were permitted.
The game is now played all over the world, and is growing in popularity every year. There sport has been played in the United States ever since Irish emigrants first came to its shores.
The objective of the sport is to score by kicking or punching the ball into the other team’s goals (3 points) or between two upright posts above the goals and over a crossbar 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) above the ground (1 point).
Players advance the football, a spherical leather ball, up the field with a combination of carrying, bouncing, kicking, hand-passing, and soloing (dropping the ball and then toe-kicking the ball upward into the hands). In the game, two types of scores are possible: points and goals. A point is awarded for kicking or hand-passing the ball over the crossbar, signalled by the umpire raising a white flag. A goal is awarded for kicking the ball under the crossbar into the net, signalled by the umpire raising a green flag.
About the Game
About the Game
Players per Side
Length of Pitch
Width of Pitch
The majority of adult football and all minor and under-21 matches last for 60 minutes, divided into two halves of 30 minutes, with the exception of senior inter-county games, which last for 70 minutes (two halves of 35 minutes). Draws are decided by replays or by playing 20 minutes of extra time (two halves of 10 minutes). Juniors have a half of 20 minutes or 25 minutes in some cases. Half-time lasts for about 5 or 10 minutes.
Teams consist of fifteen players (a goalkeeper, two corner backs, a full back, two wing backs, a centre back, two mid fielders, two wing forwards, a centre forward, two corner forwards and a full forward) plus up to fifteen substitutes, of which five may be used. Each player is numbered 1–15, starting with the goalkeeper, who must wear a jersey colour different from that of his or her teammates. Up to fifteen substitutes may be named on the team sheet, number 16 usually being the reserve goalkeeper.
Teams consist of fifteen players: a goalkeeper, three full backs, three half backs, two midfielders, three half forwards and three full forwards (see diagram). The panel is made up of 24–30 players and five substitutions are allowed per game. An exception can now be made in the case of a blood substitute being necessary
The game is played with a round leather football made of 18 stitched leather panels, similar in appearance to a traditional volleyball (but larger), with a circumference of 68–70 cm (27–28 in), weighing between 480–500 g (17–18 oz) when dry. It may be kicked or hand passed. A hand pass is not a punch but rather a strike of the ball with the side of the closed fist, using the knuckle of the thumb.
Types of fouls
There are three main types of fouls in Gaelic Football, which can result in the ball being given to the other team, a player being cautioned, a player being removed from the field, or even the game being terminated.
The following are considered technical fouls (“fouling the ball”):
- Going four steps without releasing, bouncing or soloing the ball (soloing involves kicking the ball into one’s own hands)
- Bouncing the ball twice in a row (It may be soloed continuously)
- Changing hands: Throwing the ball from your right hand to left or vice versa (legal in the ladies’ game)
- Throwing the ball (it may be “hand-passed” by striking with the fist).
- Hand passing a goal. To hand pass a ball with an open palm there must be a clear striking action (the ball may be punched over the bar from up in the air, but not into the goal).
- Picking the ball directly off the ground (it must be scooped up into the hands by the foot). However, in ladies’ Gaelic football the ball may be picked up directly.
- Square ball is an often controversial rule: If, at the moment the ball enters the small square, there is already an attacking player inside the small rectangle, then a free out is awarded. As of 2012 square balls are only counted if the player is inside the square when the ball is kicked from a free or set piece. An opposing player is allowed in the square during open play.
Aggressive fouls are physical or verbal fouls committed by a player against an opponent or the referee. The player can be cautioned (shown a yellow card), ordered off the pitch without a substitute (red card), or (beginning 1 January 2014) ordered off the pitch with a substitution (black card).
A dissent foul is a foul where a player fails to comply with the officials’ judgment and/or instructions. The player can be cautioned (shown a yellow card), ordered off the pitch without a substitute (red card), the free kick placement moved 13 m further down-field, or in certain circumstances, the game can be terminated. The following are considered dissent fouls:
- To challenge the authority of a Referee, Umpire, Linesman or Sideline Official
- To fail to comply with a Referee’s instruction to use a mouth guard.
- To refuse to leave the field of play, on the instruction of the Referee, for attention, after an injury involving bleeding.
- To show dissent with the Referee’s decision to award a free kick to the opposing team.
- To refuse to leave the field of play when ordered off (Red Card) or rejoin the game after being ordered off.
- A team or player(s) leaving the field without the Referee’s permission or refusing to continue playing
If the ball goes over the crossbar, a point is scored and a white flag is raised by an umpire. A point is scored by either kicking the ball over the crossbar, or fisting it over, in which case the hand must be closed while striking the ball. If the ball goes below the crossbar, a goal, worth three points, is scored, and a green flag is raised by an umpire. A goal is scored by kicking the ball into the net, not by fist passing the ball into it. However, a player can strike the ball into the net with a closed fist if the ball was played to him by another player or came in contact with the post/crossbar/ground prior to connection. The goal is guarded by a goalkeeper. Scores are recorded in the format Goal Total-Point Total. To determine the score-line goals must be converted to points and added to the other points. For example, in a match with a final score of Team A 0–21 Team B 4–8, Team A is the winner with 21 points, as Team B scored only 20 points (4 times 3, plus 8).
The level of tackling allowed is less robust than in rugby.
Shoulder to shoulder contact and slapping the ball out of an opponent’s hand are permitted, but the following are all fouls:
- Blocking a shot with the foot
- Pulling an opponent’s jersey
- Pushing an opponent
- Sliding tackles
- Striking an opponent
- Touching the goalkeeper when he/she is inside the small rectangle
- Using both hands to tackle
- Wrestling the ball from an opponent’s hands
- A match begins with the referee throwing the ball up between the four mid fielders.
- After an attacker has put the ball wide of the goals or scored a point or a goal, the goalkeeper may take a kick out from the ground at the 13 m line. All players must be beyond the 20 m line.
- After a defender has put the ball wide of the goals, an attacker may take a “45” from the ground on the 45 m line, level with where the ball went wide.
- After a player has put the ball over the sideline, the other team may take a sideline kick at the point where the ball left the pitch. It may be kicked from the ground or the hands. The player who is taking the sideline kick must not pass the boundary line while taking.
- After a player has committed a foul, the other team may take a free kick (usually shortened to “free” in reports/commentaries) at the point where the foul was committed. It may be kicked from the ground or the hands.
- If a player has been fouled while passing the ball, the free may be taken from the point where the ball landed.
- After a defender has committed a foul inside the large rectangle, the other team may take a penalty kick from the ground from the centre of the 11 m line. Only the goalkeeper may guard the goals.
- If many players are struggling for the ball and it is not clear who was fouled first, the referee may choose to throw the ball up between two opposing players.
A football match is overseen by up to eight officials:
- The referee
- Two linesmen
- Sideline official/Standby linesman (often referred to as “fourth official”; inter-county games only)
- Four umpires (two at each goal)
The referee is responsible for starting and stopping play, recording the score, awarding frees and booking and sending off players.
Linesmen are responsible for indicating the direction of line balls to the referee.
The fourth official is responsible for overseeing substitutions, and also indicating the amount of stoppage time (signalled to him by the referee) and the players substituted using an electronic board.
The umpires are responsible for judging the scoring. They indicate to the referee whether a shot was: wide (spread both arms), a 45 m kick (raise one arm), a point (wave white flag), square ball (cross arms) or a goal (wave green flag). A disallowed score is indicated by crossing the green and white flags.
Other officials are not obliged to indicate any misdemeanours to the referee; they are only permitted to inform the referee of violent conduct they have witnessed that has occurred without the referee’s knowledge. A linesman/umpire is not permitted to inform the referee of technical fouls such as a “double bounce” or an illegal pick-up of the ball. Such decisions can only be made at the discretion of the referee.
Differences in Ladies Football
Most of the rules of ladies’ gaelic football are the same as those for men’s game. The main differences are:
- A player may pick the ball up directly from the ground, so long as she is standing
- Most matches last 60 minutes; in men’s senior inter-county football, games last 70 minutes
- Kickouts may be taken from the hand
- A countdown clock with siren is used if available; in the men’s game, the referee decides the end of the game
- All deliberate bodily contact is forbidden except when “shadowing” an opponent, competing to catch the ball, or blocking the delivery of the ball
- A smaller size 4 gaelic ball is used compared to the size 5 ball used in the men’s game.